Cunfruntu tra virsioni di "Alcool"

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4 701 byte aggiunti ,  11 anni fa
Juncii a sizzioni == Chimica e tossiculoggìa == (traduzzioni parziali di l'lingua angrisi) == Chemistry and toxicology ==
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(Juncii a sizzioni == Chimica e tossiculoggìa == (traduzzioni parziali di l'lingua angrisi) == Chemistry and toxicology ==)
â''Pi na trattazzioni di st'argumentu dû puntu di vista chìmicu, viditi [[Àlcoli]]''.
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Spissu cu stu tèrmini cci si rifirisci a l''''àlcool''' prisenti ntê [[Vìppita alcòlica|vìppiti alcòlichi]] zzoè l'àlcol etìlicu o [[etanolu]]. N [[lingua siciliana|sicilianu]] l'alcool usatu nta midicina si chiama [[spiritu (alcool)|spiritu]].<br>
== Chimica e tossiculoggìa ==
 
L' '''Etanolu''' (CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>OH), l'ingridienti "attivu" nta vìppiti alcòlichi, ppi scopa di cunzumu eni sempri li prudiciutu dâ firmintazzioni ri parti ri certi speci di lievitu in assenza d'[[ussigginu]].<br>
Lu prucessu appruduci diossidu ri carboniu, e chissu poti essiri utilizzatu ppi renniri "frizzanti" a vìppita.<br>
Nta ogni casu, stu mètudu lassa risidua di lièvitu e nta na scala 'ndustriali, a carbunazzioni (lu prucessu ppi rènniri a vìppita frizzanti) eni fatta siparatamenti.<br>
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Li vìppiti cu na cuncintrazzioni di cchiu ssai di lu 50% d'etanolu ppi vulumi sunu liquida [['nfiammabbili]] e s'addumunu fàcili fàcili.<br>
Certi vìppiti isotichi pigghianu lu gustu isòticu distintivu attraversu n'addumata 'ntinziunali.<br>
<!---- sta bivanna nun eni canusciuta in Sicilia tantu assai
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Vìppiti alcolichi ccu nu cuntinutu d'itanolu cchiu gghiautu ponu ssiri incindiati sulu sulu cauriànnuli tanticcedda: ppa isempiu mintinnuli nta nu biccheri bullenti.<br>
Nta a [chimica]], l' '''[[alcool]]''' eni nu tèrmini ginirali ppi nu [[cumpostu urgànicu]] unni lu gruppu idròssili (-[[ossigginu|O]][[itrocinu|H]]) eni liatu all'[[atumu]] ri [[carboniu]], ca in canciu ppo ssiri liàtu a autri atuma di carboniu e autri itroceni.<br>
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Autri alcool comu lu [[propylene glycol]] and the [[sugar alcohol]]s may appear in food or beverages regularly, but these alcohols do not make them "alcoholic". [[Methanol]] (one carbon), the [[propanol]]s (three carbons giving two isomers), and the [[butanol]]s (four carbons, four isomers) are all commonly found alcohols, and none of these three should ever be consumed in any form. Alcohols are [[Toxication|toxicated]] into the corresponding [[aldehyde]]s and then into the corresponding [[carboxylic acid]]s. These metabolic products cause a poisoning and [[acidosis]]. In the case of other alcohols than ethanol, the aldehydes and carboxylic acids are poisonous and the acidosis can be lethal. In contrast, fatalities from ethanol are mainly found in extreme doses and related to induction of unconsciousness or chronic addiction (alcoholism).
 
Humans can metabolize ethanol as an energy-providing nutrient. Ethanol is metabolized into [[acetaldehyde]] and then into [[acetic acid]]. Acetic acid is esterified with coenzyme A to produce [[acetyl CoA]]. Acetyl CoA carries the acetyl [[moiety]] into the [[citric acid cycle]], which produces energy by oxidizing the acetyl moiety into [[carbon dioxide]]. Acetyl CoA can also be used for biosynthesis. Acetyl CoA is an intermediate common with the metabolism of sugars and fats, and it is the product of [[glycolysis]], the breakdown of glucose.
 
When compared to other [[alcohol]]s, ethanol is only slightly toxic, with a lowest known lethal dose in humans of 1400&nbsp;mg/kg (about 15 shots for a 100&nbsp;kg person), and a [[LD50|LD<sub>50</sub>]] of 9000&nbsp;mg/kg (oral, rat). Nevertheless, accidental overdosing of alcoholic drinks, especially those of concentrated variety, is a risk, especially for women, lightweight persons and children. These people have a smaller quantity of water in their bodies, so that alcohol is diluted less. A [[blood alcohol concentration]] of 50 to 100&nbsp;mg/dL may be considered legal [[drunkenness]] (laws vary by jurisdiction). The threshold of effects is at 22&nbsp;mg/dL.<ref>http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/reprint/28/4/570.pdf</ref>
 
Alcohol affects the [[gamma-aminobutyric acid]] (GABA) receptors, to produce a depressant (neurochemical inhibitory) effect. Other psychoactives affecting the GABA receptor include [[gamma-hydroxybutyric acid]], [[barbiturate]]s and [[benzodiazepine]]s.
 
Excessive consumption of alcohol leads to a toxication-induced delayed poisoning called [[hangover]] (in [[Latin language|Latin]], ''crapula'' refers to intoxication and hangover). Various factors contribute, including the toxication of ethanol itself to [[acetaldehyde]], the direct toxic effects and toxication of impurities called [[congener]]s, and [[dehydration]]. The hangover starts after the euphoric effects of alcohol itself have subsided, typically in the night and morning after alcoholic drinks were consumed. However, the blood alcohol concentration may still be substantial and above the limits imposed for drivers and operators of other dangerous equipment. The effects of a hangover subside over time. Various treatments to cure hangover have been suggested, many of them pseudoscientific.
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N [[lingua siciliana|sicilianu]] l'alcool usatu nta midicina si chiama [[spiritu (alcool)|spiritu]].
 
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